Juˊstings, or Justs

Juˊstings, or Justs [Joûtes (F.) of joûter (F.) to run at tilts]
were exercises used in former times by such persons, who desired to gain reputation in feats of arms, of whatsoever degree or quality, from the king to the private gentleman; they were usually performed at great solemnities, as marriages of princes; and also on other occasions. The time and place being appointed, challenges were sent abroad into other nations, to all that desired to signalize themselves. And rewards were appointed by the prince for those who came oft conquerors. As for the place it was various; in the year 1395 there was great justing on London-Bridge, between David Earl of Craford in Scotland and the Lord Wells of England, &c. In the time of king Edward the III. justings were frequent in Cheap-side, and on the north-side of Bow Church, there was a building of stone erected, call’d Sildan or Crownfield, to see the justings that were frequently perform’d there, between the end of Soper-Lane and the Cross. It was built on this occasion, in the year 1330, there was a great justing of all the stout earls, barons and nobles of the realm, which lasted three days, where queen Phillippa, with many ladies, fell from a scaffold of timber, but received no harm; after whichthe king built it strongly of stone for himself, the queen and persons of high rank, to behold the Justings. This Sildan remained till the time of Henry VIII. as it appears that he came thither in the habit of a yeoman of the guard, with a Patison on his shoulder, and having taken a view of the watches of the city, went away undiscoverd.
Smithfield also was a place for perfoming these exercises; in the year 1357 great and royal justs were held in Smithfield, their being present the kings of England, France and Scotland, and their nobility. And in the time of Richard II. royal justs and tournaments were procl;aimed by heralds in several courts in Europe, to be performed in Smithfield, to begin on sunday next after the feast of St. Michael. At the day appointed, there issued out of the tower, about 3 in the afternoon, 60 coursers apparalled for the justs, every one an esquire of honour, riding a soft pace, then came forth 60 ladies of honour mounted upon palfreys riding on the one side richly apparelled, and every lady led a knight with a chain of gold. Those knights that were of the king’s party, had their armour and apparel adorn’d with white harts, and crowns of gold about the harts necks, and so they rode thro’ the streets of London to Smithfield, with a great number of trumpets and other instruments of musick before them. Where the ladies that led the knights, were taken down from their palfreys, and went up to their seats prepared for them.
The esquires of honour alighted from their coursers, and the knights mounted. And after the helmets were set on their heads, and theyu were ready at all points, proclamation was made by the herakds, and then the justs began. These justs lasted many days with great feasting. The manner of it was thus, the ground being railed about, in which the Justers were to exercise, the contenders were let in at several barriers, being completely armed from head to foot, and mounted on the stoutest horses; who after they had pay’d their respects to the king, the judges and ladies, they took their several stations, and then the trumpets sounded, and they having couched their lances, that is, having set the but end against their breast, the point towads their adversary, spurred their horses, and ran furiously one against another, so that the points of their spears lighting upon the armour of each other, gave a terrible shock, and generally flew to pieces.
If neither party received any injury, they wheel’d about, took fresh lances, and ran a 2d time, and so a third, and if neither suffered any disgrace in 3 encounters, they both came off with honour.
There were many circumstances relating to these performances; as if a man was unhorsed, he was quite disgraced, or if he was shaken in the saddle, or let his lance fall, or lost any piece of his armour, or wounded his antagonist’s horse, &c. all which were accounted disreputable. And there were also certain rules for distributing the prizes to them that behaved themselves with the greatest gallantry.

Definition taken from The Universal Etymological English Dictionary, edited by Nathan Bailey (1736)

Injury [in Sculpture or Painting]
Instinct [in Painting and Sculpture]
Intoˊrtus, a um [in Botanical Writing]
Juˊstings, or Justs