AND here, e’ere we proceed further, ’tis proper to tell you what an Atchievment is in Heraldry: and according to Leigh ’tis the Arms of every Gentleman, well marshall’d, with the Supporters, Helmet, Wreath and Crest, with Mantle and Words. But the proper Term of this in Blazon, is Heawme and Timbre: The first seems deriv’d of the French Word Heulme [? printing obscure - Liam], which we translate Helmet, the other is a Dutch Word, signifying Apex, i. e. the very Top.
In order to understand the true manner of placing the Ornaments just mention’d, let us consider each of page xxxii’em singly: But we must observe, that the Ornaments of an Atchievment are placed either above, under, round about, or on each Side of it.
Of such as are plac’d Above the Atchievment, that which comes first to be observ’d is the Helmet, whereof there are several Forms, for as there are sundry Degrees among the Bearers, they are all distinguish’d (in some sort) by their Helmets; for
|The Esquire bears a sidelong Helmet, after this manner; as it were attentively beholding his Master the Knight, to receive his Commands; for an Esquire has his Name of bearing the Shield, quasi Scutifer, and in time past, each Knight has two of these to attend him, wherever he went, who bare his Helmet and Shield.|
The full-fac’d Helmet signifies Direction and Command, and therefore this here, is proper to the Dignity of Knighthood: It is greater Honour to bear the Beaver open, than close, the close signifying a buckling of it on, as a Preparation to Battle, the open Beaver betokening a Return from Battle with Victory, 1 Kings xx. ii.
This Sidelong Helmet, open, with the Gard de Visor over the Face, is common to all the Degrees of Peerage under a Duke. For Leigh allows none lower than a Baron to bear them.
A Duke is the lowest that may bear his Helmet in this Manner; for it properly belongs only to Sovereign Princes, or such who have the Government of free States or Countries. Now concerning the placing of Helmets, take these following Notes.
page xxxiii1. For the Way of placing a single Helmet, you need only look on the Figures in the former Page.
2. If you have two Helmets on one Shield, they must be plac’d as it were looking towards one another.
3. When you have three, let the middlemost be looking directly forward, and the others towards it.
The Next in Order of the Exterior Parts of an Atchievment, is the Mantle, which with us is taken for a long Robe. This was a Military Habit, used by great Commanders to preserve their Armour from the damage that might come to it by Rain, Snow, &c. Perhaps it was the same with the Toka Militaris of the ancient Romans. What we now a-days call Mantleing, may better be call’d Flourishing, for ’tis not to be imagin’d, that such jagged and frownced Stuff as is in use, was ever design’d to keep off Cold or Rain, which was undoubtedly the first Occasion of the Invention of Mantles.
But in Blazoning (what ever Name you chuse to call ’em by) you must ever more say that they are doubled, i.e. lined throughout with some one of the Furrs above name’d.
Next to the Mantle, the Cognisance doth take Place, and is seated upon the most eminent Part of the Atchievment, yet so that it admitteth the Interposition of some Escroll, Wreath, Chapeau, Crown, &c. and is call’d a Cognisance, a cognoscendo, because by tjem such Persons as do wear them are eminently known whose Servants they are.
I will now proceed to treat of such things as are sometimes interpos’d between the Mantle and the Crest, beginning with those of inferior Rank, and so proceeding to the better Sort.
Altho’ Examples of a Crest on an Escroll, of this, or some other like Form, be now worn out of Use, yet formerly it was of so great Estimation, that none under the Degree of a Knight was suffer’d to bear it. And it may be observ’d, page xxxiv [marked xxxvi] that even now our most noble Prinve of Wales, so beareth his Badge.
The Wreath (or Torce) so call’d because made of Silk of two or more Colours) is an Ornament of the Head, in use with the Turks and Saracens. For the orderly composing hereof, you must evermore begin with the Metal, and end with the Colour.
This Kind of Headtire, is call’d A Cap of Dignity, which Duke’s accustomed to wear in Token of Excellencyl as also great Commanders, for Testimony of their Triumphs and Victories. This Cap must be of Scarlet Colour, and lin’d with Ermine.
Next to these are the several Sorts of Crowns and Coronets, of which the following are Icons.
page xxxvSuch Ornaments as environ the Coat-Armour, are the Badges of the several Orders of Knighthood; where ’tis to be observ’d, that if any Person be a Member of two of ’em, he shall place the Ornament of one next to his Shield, and the other without
Things placed on the Side, are either Living, and then to be called Supporters; or Dead, and then you must say the Arms are Cotified of such and such things.
Note. None of less Degree than a Baron, is allow’d to bear his Arms cotified and supported.
The last Ornament proper to an Atchievment, is the Motto or Word, which is the Conceit of the Bearer, in three or four Words, set in an Escroll or Compartment at the Foot of the Escocheon, and is to be last blazoned.
Observe upon the whole, That in blazoning these Ornaments, ’tis no manner of Fault to repeat any Term of Art, Names of Tinctures, &c. twice.
And now, to illustrate what has been said, take the following Examples, by which every Rule before given will be fully explain’d.
IN Gratitude to the Rev. Mr. Joseph Bokenham, Rector of Stoake Ash in the County of Norfolk, who has been on several Accounts an Encourager of this Book, I make bold to insert his Coat here, with proper Ornaments, tho’ that Gentleman has modestly refus’d to communicate to us the suitable Instructions, having only sent the Coat and Crest, without Quarterings; He beareth Argent, a Lion rampant Gules, armed and langued Azure. Crest. On a Torce Argent and Gules, a Lion rampant as in the Coat.
THE Right worshipful Sir Nicholas Carew or Bedington in Surrey, Baronet, bears quartered Twelve oats, viz. 1st Or, three Lioncels passant Sable, on a Canton Argent, a dexter Hand couped at the Wrist Gules. 2d. Argent, three Snakes nowed proper. 3d. Gules, a dexter Arm proper, habited with a Maunch Ermine, holding a Fleur de Lis Or. 4th. Quarterly Sable and Argent. 5th. Gules, a Fesse checkie Sable and Argent, between six Cross-Croslets of the third. page xxxviii 6th. Azure, three left Hand Gauntlets Argent. 7th. Ermine, on a Chief Azure, three Cross-Pattees Argent. 8th. Azure, a Frett Argent, and Chief Gules. 9th. Or. A Lion rampant double quevee Sable. 10th. Gules, a Fesse dancette between six Cross-Croslets Or. 11th. Barry of six Ermine and Gules, over all three Crescents Argent. 12th.